ArduinoComponents  0.3.0
ArduinoComponents Documentation


Quick Jump:

Arduino Components

Components is a project that aims to help electronics hobbyists to write code for Arduino that is:

  • Modern - Take advantage of the included Helper Classes (Vector, Function, TimedDispatch...) and write event driven code
  • Reusable - Reuse existing components or your own from past projects
  • Extendable - Make your own (hardware independent) components and use base components from the library
  • Testable - Centralize Platform dependent code. Mock and test components individually


Getting Started


You can get the latest library version via the built in Arduino IDE Library Manager or get the ZIP file with the source code from the GitHub release page.


There are none! This library (in it's current form) is fully self contained.

UPDATE 12.01.2019: If you wish to use the experimental RF componenets you will need to #define EXPERIMENTAL_RFand to have the following libraries installed:

  • RadioHead - Packet Radio library for embedded microprocessors.
  • rc-switch - Arduino lib to operate 433/315Mhz devices.

    Project Structure

  • IO - includes the basic IO classes such as DigitalInput, DigitalOutput, AnalaogInput, millisTime (and more)
  • Components - includes a few useful components such as LED, TactileButton and some more experimental RF classes. Open for contributions and extensions!
  • Helpers - includes useful helper classes such as Vector, Function and Ref


Basic IO

For basic digital and analog input and output this library provides the following utilities: #### Digital IO

// initiates digital output on pin 13
DigitalOutput led(13);
// pin can be controlled with:
// initiates digital input on pin 8
DigitalInput in(8);
if(in.isHigh()) {
// Do something when HIGH
if(in.isLow()) {
// Do something when LOW

#### Analog IO

// initiates PWM output on pin 9 (pwm on UNO)
AnalogOutput led(9);
// pwm values should be between 0.0 and 1.0
led.write(0.25); // led is 25% on
// pwm pins can also be controlled with:
// initiates analog input on pin 8
AnalogInput in(8);
float reading =; // returns a value from 0.0 to 1.0
if(reading > 0.75) {
// Do something when higher than 75%


Component represents the base class for all components. this is the class to extend if you want to create custom components. Custom components should:

  • Override privateLoop
  • Call RegisterChild on children (not mendatory)


``` c++ class Component { public: Component(Ref<Component> parent = nullptr);

// loop is the public interface for proccessing input and inner class state. Notice it is not virtual. // loop will call loop on all children and than call privateLoop void loop();

protected: // RegisterChild stores a reference to the child in a vector so later (on loop) // the child's loop could be called void RegisterChild(Ref<Component> child);

// SkipLoop will stop the current looping and will restart looping from the root parent. This is // useful when we dont want to run any code after a certain event or input void SkipLoop();

private: // loopChildren will call the loop function on all the children that were registered (via RegisterChild) void loopChildren();

// privateLoop is the function that derived classes can override and populate with // whatever the object need to do virtual void privateLoop() = 0; };

For built-in components [Click Here](
View the `Examples` section below for more examples of components creation and usage.
## Examples
* [Examples](#Examples)
* [Blink](#Blink)
* [Basic IO](#Basic-IO)
* [Higher Level Components](#Higher-Level-Components)
* [Custom Components](#Custom-Components)
### Blink
This is a good example for using the built in `DigitalOutput` class. **Notice** how you don't need to rewrite the pin number every time and there is no risk of forgetting to write `pinMode(...)` etc.
DigitalOutput led(LED_BUILTIN);
void setup() {}
void loop() {

Basic IO

This example uses DigitalInput and DigitalOutput to light up an LED when a button is pressed down.

// Initialize an input object for the button that is pulled to high
DigitalInput button(BTN_PIN, InputPull::Up);
DigitalOutput led(LED_PIN);
void setup() {}
bool isButtonPressed() {
// Button pin is normally high (because it is pulled up)
// When the button is pressed, reading will be low (Ground)
return button.isLow();
// The led will be on when the button is pressed
void loop() {
if(isButtonPressed()) {
} else {

Higher Level Components

This example shows how to use "Higher Level" components such as LED and TactileButton to create a sketch that toggles LED state on button presses. Notice how button calls a callback when it is released (input goes from high to low). Also notice how all the code is in setup - responding to the event instead of manually checking in the loop function.

// ** Can also be initialized with DigitalInput:
// TactileButton button(DigitalInput(BTN_PIN, InputPull::InputPull_Up))
TactileButton button(BTN_PIN, TriggerOn::Low, InputPull::Up);
void setup() {;
// Register a callback for the onRelease event
// Led stores its state internally, so it can be toggled
// delay to ignore button debounces
void loop() {
// we call loop() on button so it can proccess phsical input and call our callbacks

Custom Components

This example is a bit more advanced. It shows a way to create a custom component (an object that extends Component) that has a button and an led. This sketch is another way to write the previous example.

class ButtonToggledLED : public Component {
ButtonToggledLED(PinNumber buttonPin, PinNumber ledPin) :
led(ledPin, State::State_Low),
button(buttonPin, TriggerOn::Low, InputPull::Up) {
// When we register a components as a child, it's loop is called every time our loop is called
// So instead of us needing to call it's loop, it is called automaticaly and the object
// is ready to use and read when execution arrives to this->privateLoop
// Register a callback for the onRelease event
// Led stores its state internally, so it can be toggled
// delay to ignore button debounces
TactileButton button;
LED led;
void privateLoop() {
// By the time this function is called, `button`'s loop had already been executed
// and onRelease was called (if the button was actually released), so there is no
// work to be done in this function.
#define BTN_PIN 8
#define LED_PIN 13
ButtonToggledLED app(BTN_PIN, LED_PIN);
void setup() {}
void loop() {


Contributions are welcomed! You can help by:

  • Try the library out! Open issues and help others
  • Write custom components or share components you wrote for your own projects
  • Add examples
  • Fix bugs and documentation
  • Suggest refactoring and challenge design decisions


This project is licensed under the MIT License - see the file for details